Posts Tagged ‘Kanban’

Agile

Whilst Agile frameworks such as Scrum and Kanban are a great way of taking steps towards becoming more Agile, it’s important to remember amongst their own principles and guidelines, that the ultimate objective is to deliver customer value/the product vision in an efficient and competitive way.

To help avoid losing sight of this objective and falling into the trap of obsessing about the intricate details of the frameworks too much, it’s important that gap analysis is done frequently on the actual Agile manifesto and principles themselves to see how you can shape the Agile framework to achieve agility and the real benefits of being Agile.

The 4 Agile Values/Manifesto

  1. Individuals and interactions over processes and tools
  2. Working software over comprehensive documentation
  3. Customer collaboration over contract negotiation
  4. Responding to change over following a plan

The 12 Agile Principles

  1. Our highest priority is to satisfy the customer through early and continuous delivery of valuable software.
  2. Welcome changing requirements, even late in development. Agile processes harness change for the customer’s competitive advantage.
  3. Deliver working software frequently, from a couple of weeks to a couple of months, with a preference to the shorter timescale.
  4. Business people and developers must work together daily throughout the project.
  5. Build projects around motivated individuals. Give them the environment and support they need, and trust them to get the job done.
  6. The most efficient and effective method of conveying information to and within a development team is face-to-face conversation.
  7. Working software is the primary measure of progress.
  8. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely.
  9. Continuous attention to technical excellence and good design enhances agility.
  10. Simplicity–the art of maximizing the amount of work not done–is essential.
  11. The best architectures, requirements, and designs emerge from self-organizing teams.
  12. At regular intervals, the team reflects on how to become more effective, then tunes and adjusts its behavior accordingly.

How Spotify have adopted Agile

Velocity

Velocity = Projected amount of story points which a team can burn over a set period

A development team’s velocity using Scrum or Kanban can be worked out by totalling up the amount of points which has been burned across 3-5 sprints/set periods and then dividing it by the periods the totals were calculated over (taking an average across the periods).

It’s important to use an average across the last 3-5 periods, so then holiday seasons and a sprint where items have moved over to the following sprint doesn’t dramatically impact the numbers as much as it would if you only looked at the last period.

A team can use their velocity in many ways, for example:

  • Understanding how many points they can commit to during sprint planning/work out how many PBIs (Product Backlog Items) could be done across the next 2 weeks
  • To aid prioritisation (The ‘I’ in ROI)
  • Predicting when software can be delivered in the backlog, which can then be used to forecast future feature delivery
  • Understanding the impact on any resources eg. Scrum team member changes or adding extra teams to the product
  • Understanding the impact which dependencies are having which can be reviewed in the retro, great example being build pipelines
  • Providing a more accurate estimate than a t-shirt size
  • As a KPI for efficiency improvements

I tend to refer to points being ‘burned’ rather than ‘delivered’ because it’s quite easy to fall into the velocity/story point delivery trap of obsessing about points being delivered rather than obsessing about delivering outcomes (business value).

Ops

All products will have an element of BAU (business as usual) and strategic work, where both are equally important to get after if the product is to remain competitive now and in years to come.

BAU work can also be referred to as ops (operational) work and I’ve always preferred the word ‘Ops’ over ‘BAU’ because no problem to solve should be looked at as solving it in the usual way which BAU can often be treated like. Also there’s often a stigma attached to BAU irrelevant of the business value it drives which is bonkers, so let’s look at the definitions of both:

  • BAU – work which doesn’t involve significant architecture redesign or thought, but BAU work is typically the blood line of the business
  • Strategic – work which involves a significant amount of up front technical design and often uses the latest / next generation technology. Strategic work often comes into play if there’s an architectural org restructure, the existing technical platform is no longer fit for purpose or it’s a new product

When it comes to delivering either BAU or Strategic work, there’s a couple of ways:

  1. Simply follow the same agile process which any other problem does, which includes adding a high level PBI (Product Backlog Item) detailing the problem to solve with value and then the Scrum Master / Team Lead looks well ahead in the product backlog to start contemplating approaching the ‘how’ with very close collaboration with the Technical Architect (TA) with the aim to get the item in a ‘Ready‘ state for development. This would in turn lead to the development teams planning in Technical Support backlog items to help the TA with technical designs, spikes or investigations well in advance of the problem appearing towards the top of the backlog which applies to both Scrum and Kanban.
  2. Split development resource into BAU only and Strategic only

The risk with No 1 is that the Scrum Master doesn’t collaborate with the Technical Architect soon enough resulting in the PBI hitting the top of the backlog before technical designs have started, causing significant delays to getting after the strategic work.

But there’s a much bigger risk to No 2 where there would naturally be a big reluctance for a team to work purely on BAU and therefore miss out on any green field project and there’s risk of breaking the ‘One Team’ mentality across the product development teams working on the whole product together and in turn impacting team morale.

Done

Once the product backlog is in a good quality condition and the product backlog items (PBIs) start moving into development, there’s a significant amount of tasks to tick off before the feature can be marked as ‘done’ and therefore ready to ship.

Typically a development team would use a ‘definition of done’ (DoD) as a reference to ensure that none of the processes get missed off before it’s ‘done’, as each of those processes are essential and could have considerable consequences for the business and customers if it’s not done.

Some examples of what could be in a definition of done:

  • Code is reviewed by someone who didn’t do the PBI
  • Code is deployed to test environment
  • Feature is tested against acceptance criteria
  • Feature passes regression testing
  • Feature passes smoke test
  • Feature is documented
  • Feature has analytics tracking
  • Feature approved by UX designer / stakeholder
  • Feature approved by Product Owner

Missing any of the DoD processes before a feature gets delivered to a customer could result in critical bugs across the feature, causing bugs across other features in the code, bring down the product or delivering the wrong requirement, so it’s essential to take the definition of done seriously even if it means taking the PBI over to the next sprint resulting in potentially not meeting a sprint goal.

Invest

In order to avoid lots of panic and chaos the day before sprint planning because there’s no work in a ‘ready‘ state, it’s essential to have regular backlog grooming sessions which would result in having at least six weeks’ worth of high priority ‘ready’ work in the product backlog.

To get PBI’s (Product Backlog Items) in a ready state, it can take a lot of effort especially when it comes to chasing down dependencies or getting answers around the business requirements, but this is where the Scrum Master comes in to help out – although the Product Owner owns the product backlog, it’s the responsibility of the Scrum Master to help, guide and support the team to ensure they’re having frequent effective backlog grooming sessions, so there’s a good few weeks worth of ready PBI’s.

A new PBI is the start of a conversation and shouldn’t include solutions, so there should be ongoing questions around the requirements well in advance of the work going into development, until the development team feel they have enough information to size the PBI and then mark it as ready if there’s no dependencies.

It’s important to have a good quality product backlog (high priority items in a ready state) and frequently groom PBIs, to ensure the development teams are not only working on the highest priority items, but also that they’re working in an efficient way.

Some tips to getting a good quality product backlog:

  1. Create the user stories and prioritise in the backlog sooner rather than later – as a minimum the story needs to include ‘as a’, ‘I want’, ‘so that’ language with some high level acceptance criteria which will help start the conversation with the developers, giving them weeks to ask questions up front before it appears towards the top of the backlog.
  2. Making the problem / requirements clear with a stakeholder point of contact within the story for reference
  3. Having a clear title (summary) to the story, so you don’t have to open it up to find out what it’s about
  4. When there are questions from the developers to answer either by the Sub Product Owner (or Product Owner), stakeholders or technical, try to avoid leaving these unanswered for days – these should be responded to immediately as a priority
  5. For the ‘Feature Backlog‘ to be presented to the team monthly or bi-monthly, so they know clearly what the value of the relevant PBI’s are with some context around them
  6. Having flexible backlog grooming sessions – there’s no rule here, the teams can get together everyday if they like to groom the backlog until they’ve caught up
  7. Reinforcing to the development teams that they don’t need to know exactly what code to write and where in order to size the PBI, but instead the sizing should be based on a suitable solution making some assumptions
  8. Attaching customer flows / UX to the PBIs, with a link to ‘As Is’ and ‘To Be’ documentation

At least 10% of the teams time should be spent on grooming the product backlog and unless enough time is invested or they don’t get the support they need from the Scrum Master or Product Owner, then there’s risk of inefficiencies or the teams working on low priority PBI’s (Product Backlog Items) as the high priority items aren’t being groomed enough in time for sprint planning.

To compliment the Product Roadmap, there should be a prioritised product ‘Feature Backlog’ which gives both stakeholders and the development teams a detailed overview of the Product Roadmap items still at that high level (Epics / Product Iterations).

If you use JIRA to manage your software delivery projects and you have your product roadmap items at an Epic level, then you’re able to simply setup a Kanban board with just one column called ‘Feature Backlog’ with a filter set to show only Epics and Epics which are ‘in progress’ or ‘to do’.

To visualise the feature backlog in a better way than the Kanban board, it’s possible to also show that same JIRA epic search filter across the likes of Confluence or Aha! where you can specify what JIRA fields to show.

Depending on your custom fields in JIRA, looking at the Feature Backlog should give stakeholders and development teams working on the product a high level (iteration / epic) idea of:

  • Priority order of all epics / iterations
  • Status – what’s in progress, planned or to do
  • Business value – whether it’s driving x incremental revenue, saving x money, avoiding x fees, meeting regulatory requirements, contract deadlines, tech debt, advancing technology etc
  • Description of the iteration / problem you’re solving
  • Delivery date which should match the dates on the product roadmap
  • Size of work

The Feature Backlog is a great way of showcasing at a high level the value of the product iterations which are currently being worked on and what’s planned in the next twelve months.

The Feature Backlog also helps the development teams understand the details of what problems are upcoming to solve, so they’re able to think about how to approach each epic / product iteration well in advance.

ScrumCards

A self-organised development team working together successfully to achieve common goals within the sprint boundary (typically every two weeks) is only possible if the teams ceremonies are done which includes:

  1. Daily stand-up – the scrum team need to meetup daily on time to discuss what they did yesterday, what they’re planning to do today, highlight any dependencies, issues or help they might need
  2. Updating the scrum board daily – whether the source of truth is the physical board or a digital version eg. JIRA, the scrum board needs to reflect the current state of play with regards to the sprint progress, so the team can understand how they’re progressing with their sprint commitments and sprint goals
  3. Regular backlog grooming sessions – in order for the development team to be able to work on the highest priority PBIs (Product Backlog Items) in the next sprint, they need to ensure they meet up regularly in order to get at least the next three sprints highest priority backlog items in a ‘ready‘ state
  4. Roughly sizing the backlog – in order to predict when customers will receive tweaks to the product, it’s important that the product backlog is roughly sized to aid delivery ETAs, but also prioritisation
  5. Retrospectives – meeting up once a sprint to discuss what could have gone better in the last sprint, what went well and what to continue doing. The format is flexible and the most important thing to do at the start of any retrospective is to focus on actions front the last retrospective – unless actions are done (the team learns), retrospectives are pointless, so it’s absolutely crucial that the things which the teams are keen to change / improve on is actioned or tried at least.
  6. Sprint review – showcasing what awesome iterations the team has been working on to get feedback and a round of applause from stakeholders

In order for the scrum team to be able to fulfill their commitments they should be getting significant help, guidance and support from the Scrum Master or Team Lead, Product Owner and the Development Manager and only once the above points (basics) are being done well, can a team start to seriously look to improve their velocity and scale successfully.