Analytics

The short answer is yes – the product/team will definitely benefit by having web/app analytics tracking as part of the definition of done (DoD).

The only time that a separate analytics tracking story should be written and played is typically in the scenario of:

  1. There’s no existing analytics tracking, so there’s tracking debt to deal with including the initial API integration
  2. A migration from one analytics provider to another

The reason why it’s super important to ensure that analytics/tracking is baked into the actual feature acceptance criteria/DoD, is so then:

  1. It doesn’t get forgotten
  2. It forces analytics tracking to be included in MVP/each product iteration as default
  3. It drives home that having tracking attached to a feature before it goes live is just as important as QAing, load testing, regression testing or code reviews

Unless you can measure the impact of a feature, it’s hard to celebrate success, prove the hypothesis/whether it delivered the expected outcome or know whether it delivered any business value – the purpose of product development isn’t to deliver stories or points, it’s to deliver outcomes.

Having a data-driven strategy isn’t the future, it’s now and the advertising industry adopted this analytics tracking philosophy over two decades ago, so including analytics tracking within the DoD will only help set the product/team in the right direction.

Velocity

Velocity = Projected amount of story points which a team can burn over a set period

A development team’s velocity using Scrum or Kanban can be worked out by totalling up the amount of points which has been burned across 3-5 sprints/set periods and then dividing it by the periods the totals were calculated over (taking an average across the periods).

It’s important to use an average across the last 3-5 periods, so then holiday seasons and a sprint where items have moved over to the following sprint doesn’t dramatically impact the numbers as much as it would if you only looked at the last period.

A team can use their velocity in many ways, for example:

  • Understanding how many points they can commit to during sprint planning/work out how many PBIs (Product Backlog Items) could be done across the next 2 weeks
  • To aid prioritisation (The ‘I’ in ROI)
  • Predicting when software can be delivered in the backlog, which can then be used to forecast future feature delivery
  • Understanding the impact on any resources eg. Scrum team member changes or adding extra teams to the product
  • Understanding the impact which dependencies are having which can be reviewed in the retro, great example being build pipelines
  • Providing a more accurate estimate than a t-shirt size
  • As a KPI for efficiency improvements

I tend to refer to points being ‘burned’ rather than ‘delivered’ because it’s quite easy to fall into the velocity/story point delivery trap of obsessing about points being delivered rather than obsessing about delivering outcomes (business value).

Strategy

VMOST = Vision, Missions, Objectives, Strategies and Tactics

Each product should have a clearly defined product vision, KPIs and strategies if it’s expected for the development team to deliver outcomes/head in the right direction and using the VMOST canvas is an effective way of showcasing what these are in a clear and concise format.

VMOST example

Vision: A passionate and exciting statement which typically should only be one sentence, where in a nutshell it should explain what your ambition is/what is your end goal of the product and who it’s for. More info on creating a compelling product vision can be found here.

Missions: In order to achieve the product vision, there would be multiple high-level missions you need to go on – what are the biggest problems which need solving before achieving the vision.

Objectives (KPIs): You can track progress of your missions through setting multiple objectives (aka KPIs), which would include metrics which are measurable.

Strategies: Initiatives which would deliver/impact the objectives (KPIs).

Tactics: Multiple ideas (Epics) which would deliver each strategy. The tactics should be laid out on the product roadmap, so there’s a nice link between the product VMOST and product roadmap.

Although the product owner is responsible for defining and owning the product VMOST, it’s important that it doesn’t happen in silo, as it takes collaboration with the rest of the business especially stakeholders/data/customers to help provide some guidance on the selection of problems to solve which would be represented on the VMOST.

Once the VMOST is ready, it’s time for the product owner to showcase this in a passionate way across the business and perhaps print it out on A0 to sit near the scrum team on the wall, so it can always be top of mind.

Good luck in creating your VMOST!!

Devops

Development effort isn’t cheap, but extremely valuable no matter what industry you work in, so once a product iteration is ready to ship, automating the final steps including the software build, deployment, environment and release process will help continuously deliver customer value in an efficient way without unnecessary delays or bottlenecks.

DevOps is the combination of cultural philosophies, practices, and tools that increases an organisation’s ability to deliver applications and services at high velocity: evolving and improving products at a faster pace than organizations using traditional software development and infrastructure management processes. This speed enables organisations to better serve their customers and compete more effectively in the market.” – AWS

There’s often a significant amount of thought and effort which goes into getting an idea into development, so when the code (solution) is ready to kick off the build (ship) process, it’s important that this is as automated as possible to avoid unnecessary delays with customers getting hold of the feature within a timely fashion.

Due to the rise of the DevOps culture, it’s now possible to automate the whole build, deployment and release process. As well as customers getting features sooner as mentioned above, other benefits of adopting a DevOps culture includes:

  • Software Development division remaining competitive
  • Reduction in waste from having to wait for software to build, deploy, dealing with environment issues and working with the operation team to handle the release
  • Increasing the R in ROI (Return on Investment) as less waste results in delivering more value to customers
  • Improving team morale – dealing with environmental, build and release issues manually isn’t fun
  • Improving on sprint goal complete rates as it’s less likely stories will drag over to multiple sprints because of build / release issues
  • Decreasing lapsed time of development work
  • Improved security
  • Easier to track build to release timeframe
  • Automated
  • Scalable

Adopting a DevOps culture should ideally come from bottom up rather than top down – a Product Owner shouldn’t need to create stories, sell in the importance of it to dev teams or prioritise it, as optimising the software build and release process should be BAU (Business as Usual) and should always be constantly looked at and improved.

As development teams adopt a DevOps culture and they start migrating over to a fully automated process, the benefits will be obvious and lucrative.

Less

LeSS (Large Scale Scrum) is an agile framework for 3-8 Scrum teams, but when there’s more than 8 Scrum teams it’s time to think about adopting LeSS Huge. So let’s look at the differences.

LeSS
LeSS is a scaled up version of one-team Scrum, and it maintains many of the practices and ideas of one-team Scrum. In LeSS, you will find:

In LeSS all Teams are in a common sprint to deliver a common shippable product, every sprint.

LeSS Huge

Less-huge

What’s the same as the smaller LeSS Framework:

  • One (overall) Product Backlog
  • One Definition of Done
  • One Definition of Ready
  • One (overall) Product Owner
  • One Sprint

So what’s Different?

  • Area Product Owners
  • Area Product Backlogs
  • Area Product Vision
  • Set of parallel meetings per Area

It’s important to remember that these frameworks are just guides and every business has their own org structure, so it’s completely acceptable to mould a framework to suit the organisational structure and industry sector.

Capacity

If a product is to be sustainable, tech fit, compliant and competitive it needs to have a short and long term development capacity strategy which will help to ultimately deliver the product vision.

Not having enough capacity could mean spending months / years only focusing on upgrading software versions / maintaining legacy technology or meeting regulatory requirements – not making any significant progress on getting after the product vision or surpassing competitors, having too much resource could mean that another product in the business could deliver a higher return with that resource instead, but having the right amout of capacity is important.

The product having the right amount of capacity should mean it’s possible to get after low hanging fruit, maintaining current tech whilst also concurrently getting after the next generation technology (product vision), meeting security / compliance requirements and having resource to experiment.

Understanding what the right amount of capacity should be isn’t easy, but a capacity planner will be able to help. A capacity planner should ideally be driven by points and velocity, so that no matter where the feature is on the feature pipeline (received a high level t-shirt size or has been broken down into stories) it’s possible to easily update the capacity planner with a more accurate estimate as the feature goes into development.

The data you’d typically need to lay out in a spreadsheet in order to effectively capacity plan includes:

  • Date (by month)
  • Team velocity – ‘Points to Allocate to Features’ (which already takes into account average sickness, holidays, ceremonies, breaks, training etc)
  • Forecast of future velocity based on an increase / decrease in capacity eg. Are you planning on adding another team to the product in 4 months time?
  • List of features
  • Estimates (in story points) against each feature
  • Priority order of features
  • ‘Points Remaining’ which is calculated as you start filling up the spreadsheet

It’s totally possible to roughly estimate future features by dev sprints, team sprints or man days instead of points as long as you convert it back to points after knowing how many points a whole team burns each sprint (velocity).

Another reason why it’s essential to have a capacity planner is that based on when features start and finish on the plan will drive the product roadmap dates making the roadmap data driven.

Having a capacity planner available is also a handy report when demonstrating to stakeholders that when features are in the correct priority order and once capacity has run out for a given month, then there’s no more room to slip in anymore work and it’s a case of being patient or changing priority / increasing capacity.

Basics

As a product scales there would often be an increase in capacity / scrum teams working on that product, enabling multiple features to be worked on concurrently, which would be a sensible time to review whether it’s time to adopt the LeSS (Large Scaled Scrum) framework.

As there are some additional elements involved in LeSS vs. Scrum including:

  • All of the Scrum teams work as one team, from one product backlog and with one Product Owner to deliver common goals
  • Having a joint sprint planning with members of each scrum team to decide on what product backlog items (PBIs) to commit to delivering in the next sprint
  • Overall Backlog Grooming (OBG) where members of each scrum team decide on what PBIs to assign to what teams, so they know what features to groom and get in a ready state for an upcoming sprint
  • Overall Retrospective where members of each team discuss highlights from their individual team retrospectives with the aim to learn and improve on how the whole team operates

It’s important to ensure that the Scrum teams have mastered the key elements of Scrum before considering using the LeSS framework, so before moving over to LeSS, see how you’re doing against the below questions:

  1. Are the teams using velocity to measure whether process changes they make are improving their productivity or hurting it?
  2. Are fast estimation sessions happening frequently so that the product backlog has rough estimates?
  3. Is it easy to predict when software will be delivered for the current and future projects based on the backlog being sized?
  4. Are sprint burndown charts monitored every day?
  5. Is analytics part of the definition of done?
  6. Is there a strong DevOps culture in all of the teams?

If the answer is ‘no’ to any of these then perhaps it’s a bit too early to adopt LeSS.